Kali Linux is a Debian-based Linux distribution originally designed for offensive information security. It contains tons of tools for penetration testing, network security, bug hunting, cyber security research, digital forensics, and reverse engineering.

At the 10th anniversary, Kali released Kali Purple 2023.1 variation of its original build. It contains additional tools focused on defensive information security plus a new defensive menu structure:

Identify Protect Detect Respond Recover

Note: most of these tools were already part of Kali, they are just arganised in a way that makes sense to a blue/purple team instead of a purely red team approach.


  • Arkime
    • Full packet capture and analysis designed to give more visibility but not substitute an IDS [Link]. Its source code is available at [Link].
  • CyberChef
    • Intuitive online web app for for data manipulator, conversion…  [Link] Its code is opensource and available at [Link].
  • Elastic Security
    • Security information and event management tool that combines capabilities of SIEM, EDR, and cloud security [Link].
  • Greenbone Vulnerability Manager
    • Aka OpenVAS [Link], it is a bit more than just the vulnerability scanner [Link].
  • TheHive
    • Incident response platform that can synchronise with one or multiple MISP [Link] instances to start investigations out of MISP events [Link].
  • Malcolm – Network traffic analysis tool suite
    • A network traffic analysis tool suite [Link] and its source code is available at [Link].
  • Suricata
    • A mobile IDS appliance. As it is offered in the Kali Purple build it is NOT mean to be used and a router but to used in campaigns [Link].
  • Zeek
    • An open source IDS formerly known as Bro [Link]. Its source code is available at [Link].
  • Kali Autopilot
    • An attack script builder framework for automated attacks able to share scripts for blue teams to go up against, as well as practice packet captures to train in network analysis [Link].



  • amass
    • OWASP Amass Project is a great open source tool written in Go for network mapping, attack surface and asset discovery that combine active and passive techniques [Link].
    • amass intel for intelligence gathering.
      • -active enables active methods.
      • -d, -addr, -asn, and -cidr inform list or range of targets in the scope.
      • -df and -de provide a file list with the domains to add and exclude to the scope.
      • -whois and -org search in directories for reverse whois and organisation names (respectively).
      • amass intel -list
        amass intel -whois -d domain.com
        amass intel -org CompanyName
    • amass enum for enumeration.
      • -active and -passive enables active methods or defines and purely passive.
      • -df, -ef, -df and -blf informs files as source for domains to include, exclude, root names, and blacklisted (respectively).
      • -dns-qps, -max-dns-queries, and -min-for-recursive set limits
      • -iface especifies the interface to send the traffic from (a VPN is recommended. E.g. tun0).
      • amass enum -list
        amass enum -min-for-recursive 5 -ip -brute -v -src -d domain.com
    • amass viz creates a visualisation graph to add structure to the acquired information.
      • -o and -oA uses already existing output file as source and sets the prefix for the output file name (respectively).
      • -graphistry, -maltego, and -dot defines the type of graph output file.
      • amass viz -graphistry -d domain.com
        amass viz -maltego -d domain.com
    • amass track analyses a target over time, between logged enumerations.
      • amass track -d domain.com
    • amass db performs viewing of the acquired data in the database or output directory.
      • amass db -d domain.com
    • In all cases other flags can be used for help (-h), additional verbosity (-v) or quiet standard output (-silent). Check documentation for more [Link].
  • assetfinder
    • Helps to find related domains and sub-domains to the domains in the scope passively [Link].
    • sudo apt install assetfinder -y
      assetfinder -h
      assetfinder domain.com
  • cisco-auditing-tool
    • Used to scan Cisco devices/appliances for common vulnerabilities.
      • -h and -f for a single or a list of hosts.
      • -p informs the port number.
      • -w and -a uses word and password lists.
      • sudo apt install cisco-auditing-tool -y
        CAT --help
  • defectdojo
    • It is a vulnerability management platform for DevSecOps teams [Link]. From triage information to integrations with Jira and Slack.
    • sudo apt install defectdojo -y
      defectdojo start
      defectdojo stop
    • Navigate to and use the following command to create andmin user for your self:
    • cd /usr/lib/defectdojo && sudo -u _defectdojo -- python3 manage.py createsuperuser
  • hb-honeypot
    • A specialised honeypot [Link] for high severity vulnerability on OpenSSL known as “Heartbleed” and CVE-2014-0160 [Link].
    • sudo apt install hb-honeypot -y
  • maltego
    • Maltego helps to graphically illustrate and analyses output files from intelligence and forensics tools [Link]. It makes easy to identify patterns that otherwise easily pass unoticed.
    • sudo apt install maltego -y
  • maryam
    • OWASP Maryam is a framework based on OSINT for data acquisition and compilation [Link].
    • sudo apt install maryam -y
      maryam -e show modules
      maryam -e crt -q "domain.com"
      maryam -e github -q "userName"
  • nipper
    • A tool for audit configuration of Cisco routers, firewalls, switches, and other network devices looking for security issues [Link]. I believe it has not being maintained.
    • sudo apt install nipper-ng -y
      nipper --ios-switch --input=/PATH/switch.config --xml --output=audit.xml
  • osrframework
    • It is a set of libraries that performs OSINT collection tasks [Link].
    • usufy identifies the social media websites that contain the informed username.
    • mailfy search for a given email or username.
    • phonepy look for the existence of a phone number in popular directories
    • domainfy looks for domains that satisfy the query and resolve to an IP.
    • searchfy looks for a string or name through all sources.
    • checkfy finds potential email addresses based on known aliases and patterns.
    • sudo apt install osrframework -y
      usufy -n userName
      mailfy -n userName
      phonefy -n phoneNumber
      domainfy -n domainPrefix
      searchfy -q 'Full Name'
  • searchsploit
    • A CLI command to fetch results from Exploit Database [Link]. It essentially, search for exploits based on a query strings or filters from a local copy of the DB.
    • This database is maintained but the Kali team, but there are other very relevant databases that must be considered during a thorough campaign (does not mean all of them are trustworthy):
    • sudo apt install exploitdb -y
      searchsploit sftp windows
      searchsploit sftp windows --json
      searchsploit -p 40828
      searchsploit sftp --exclude="(PoC)|/dos/"
      searchsploit --cve 2021-44228
  • tiger
    • It is a big set of tools to perform internal security audit on UNIX/UNIX-based system and intrusion detection [Link].
    • sudo tiger to perform a full audit.
      • -l specify the output directory.
      • -G generates MD5 signature to the binary files to further identify tampering.
      • -e and -E will provide explanations to the findings.
      • -q limits the outputs to the security issues.
      • sudo apt install tiger -y
        sudo tiger
        tiger -l /PATH/
        tiger -G
    • In Kali’s documentation they mention the alternative checksecurity, lsat or yasat.
  • wapiti
    • An web-app dynamic tester [Link]. It fuzzes and tries to inject a series of well-known exploits for SQL, XSS, Shell, XXE, CRLF, CSRF, and more.
    • sudo apt install wapiti -y
      wapiti -u http://domain.com/app
  • withnessme
    • Not sure what this tool does because I can’t find it in Kali tools page and it does not has a man file either.
    • Looks like it takes screenshots of a remote host (maybe via VNC).
  • zap
    • OWASP Zap is a proxy tool similar to Burp Suite used for web-app pentesting [Link].
    • This open source tool is not my favourite but deserves my respect because it gets the job done with no feature throttling (like Burt Community Edition does for non-paying users).


  • clamav
    • Who said there is no virus for Linux? ClamAV is probably the most versatile and widely used antivirus [Link].
    • This open source signature-based AV engine is the default in many other open source projects to perform email, traffic, and file scans.
    • sudo apt install clamav clamav-daemon -y
      sudo clamscan --infected --remove --recursive /PATH
  • cryptsetup
    • It is a disk encryption setup tool [Link].
    • It uses LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) and a few kernel modules that produce a low-overhead while writing and reading encrypted partitions.
    • See more details and full walk-through on the post [Link].
  • fwbuilder
    • Firewall Builder is a GUI for building, editing, and auditing firewall policies from various vendors/platforms [Link].
    • It display rules and policies as objects in a file system directory.
    • sudo apt install fwbuilder -y


  • grokevt
    • GrokEVT used multiple scripts to parse old Microsoft Windows event logs [Link]. It appears to not be maintained anymore.
    • sudo apt install grokevt -y
      grokevt-parselog -l /var/db/grokevt/mysystem
      grokevt-parselog /var/db/grokevt/mysystem System
      grokevt-findlogs dumpDisk.img
  • sentrypeer
    • It is a project that does not rely on centralised infrastructure to protect IP SIP (VoIP) servers [Link].
    • Using a p2p method it shares IP and phone numbers they tried to call between servers to detect fraud and sent notifications.
    • sudo apt install sentrypeer -y
      sentrypeer -w -j -f /PATH/sentrypeer.db -l /PATH/json.log


  • dc3dd
    • It is forensics tool for that is similar to dd but with additional features, such as auto skip bad sectors on the disk, create a hash over the same data streamof the copy, compression, and ecryption [Link].
    • sudo apt install dc3dd -y
      dc3dd -i
      dc3dd if=/dev/sda of=image.dd hash=sha512
  • ewf-tools
    • It is a forensics set of tools and libraries with support for EWF (Expert Witness Format) image files [Link].
      • ewfacquire writes device storage to EWF files.
      • ewfacquirestream writes data from standard input to EWF files.
      • ewfexport exports storage media data in EWF files to RAW or a specific version of EWF.
      • ewfinfo shows EWF metadata.
      • ewfmount mounts EWF files.
      • ewfrecover creates a new set of EWF files from a corrupt set.
      • ewfverify verifies EWF integrity and authenticity.
      • sudo apt install ewf-tools -y
        ewfinfo image.E01
        ewfverify image.E01
        ewfmount image.E01 /PATH
        ewfrecover image.E01 /PATH
        sudo ewfacquire /dev/sda image.E01
        sudo ewfacquirestream /dev/sda - | ssh [email protected] "cat > /PATH/image.E01"
        ewfacquirestream image.raw | ssh [email protected] remote.example.com "cat > /PATH/image.E01"
        ewfexport image.E01 -f raw -t image.dd
  • foremost
    • File recovery tool that can read from image files or directly from a storage device [Link].
    • sudo apt install foremost -y
      foremost -t jpg,png -i /dev/sdb1 -o /PATH/RECOVERED/
      foremost -c custom.conf -i image.dd -o /PATH/RECOVERED/
      foremost -t pdf -i /dev/sdc1 -o /PATH/RECOVERED/ -s /usr/share/foremost/pdf.confidential
  • galleta
    • A tool to extract cookies from the defunct Microsoft Internet Explorer.
    • sudo apt install galleta -y
      galleta -d";" output.txt
      galleta example.cookie > output.txt
  • ghidra
    • Ghidra is an open-source GUI tool for software reverse engineering developed by NSA [Link]. It allows one to disassemble, decompile, and debug, among other features used to analyse binary files and software (including malware, firmware, and compiled programs).
  • guymager
    • A  graphic forensic imager tool for media acquisition that support different image file formats (dd, ewf, and aff plus disk cloning) and multi-threaded engine for parallel, providing great performance during compression [Link].
  • hashrat
    • Hashrat is program to generate md5, sha1, sha256, sha512, whirlpool, jh-244, jh256, jh-384, jh-512, and other hash functions for Password Generation, File Integrity and Duplicated [Link].
    • sudo apt install hashrat -y
      cat fileName | hashrat -md5
    • Note: the example command above is equivalent to md5sum fileName but Hashrat can do much more than that
  • sleuthkit
    • TSK (The Sleuth Kit) is a digital forensics library and collection of command line tools that allows one to analyse volumes and file systems [Link].
    • sudo apt install libtsk-dev libtsk19 sleuthkit -y
      • blkcalc
      • blkcat
      • blkls
      • blkstat
      • fcat
      • ffind
      • fiwalk
      • fls
      • fsstat
      • hfind
      • icat
      • ifind
      • ils
      • img_cat
      • img_stat
      • istat
      • jcat
      • jls
      • jpeg_extract
      • mactime
      • mmcat
      • mmls
      • mmstat
      • pstat
      • sigfind
      • sorter
      • srch_strings
      • tsk_comparedir
      • tsk_gettimes
      • tsk_imageinfo
      • tsk_loaddb
      • tsk_recover
      • usnjls
  • mac-robber
    • It is a sibling project of TSK and Autopsy. Mac-Robber is a digital investigation and incident response tool that collects data (meta-data) from allocated files and directories in a mounted file system [Link].
    • sudo apt install mac-robber -y
      mac-robber /PATH/
      mac-robber /PATH/ | mactime -z EST
  • impacket-scripts
    • Impacket is a Python library with tools for interacting with network services, such as SMB, MSSQL, LDAP, and others. It is commonly used as password cracking, network sniffing, packet manipulation, password spraying and privilege escalation by cyber security researches [Link]. Impacket-Scripts can be used on offensive (pentesting) and defensive (network monitoring, detection, and incident response).
    • sudo apt install impacket-scripts -y
        • impacket-addcomputer
        • impacket-atexec
        • impacket-dcomexec
        • impacket-dpapi
        • impacket-esentutl
        • impacket-exchanger
        • impacket-findDelegation
        • impacket-GetADUsers
        • impacket-getArch
        • impacket-Get-GPPPassword
        • impacket-GetNPUsers
        • impacket-getPac
        • impacket-getST
        • impacket-getTGT
        • impacket-GetUserSPNs
        • impacket-goldenPac
        • impacket-karmaSMB
        • impacket-keylistattack
        • impacket-kintercept
        • impacket-lookupsid
        • impacket-machine_role
        • impacket-mimikatz
        • impacket-mqtt_check
        • impacket-mssqlclient
        • impacket-mssqlinstance
        • impacket-netview
        • impacket-nmapAnswerMachine
        • impacket-ntfs-read
        • impacket-ntlmrelayx
        • impacket-ping
        • impacket-ping6
        • impacket-psexec
        • impacket-raiseChild
        • impacket-rbcd
        • impacket-rdp_check
        • impacket-reg
        • impacket-registry-read
        • impacket-rpcdump
        • impacket-rpcmap
        • impacket-sambaPipe
        • impacket-samrdump
        • impacket-secretsdump
        • impacket-services
        • impacket-smbclient
        • impacket-smbexec
        • impacket-smbpasswd
        • impacket-smbrelayx
        • impacket-smbserver
        • impacket-sniff
        • impacket-sniffer
        • impacket-split
        • impacket-ticketConverter
        • impacket-ticketer
        • impacket-wmiexec
        • impacket-wmipersist
        • impacket-wmiquery
          • This list of script diserver
  • netsniff-ng
    • Netsniff-ng is a free Linux networking toolkit can be used for network development and analysis, debugging, auditing or network reconnaissance [Link]. Source code available at [Link].
    • sudo apt install netsniff-ng
      • netsniff-ng a zero-copy analyzer, pcap capturing/replay tool compatible with tcpdump and wireshark.
      • trafgen a multi-threaded low-level zero-copy network packet generator (including raw 802.11 frames).
      • mausezahn a high-level packet generator for network appliances with Cisco-CLI. Good for stress, malformed, or malicious packets tests
      • bpfc a BPF (Berkeley Packet Filter) compiler and disassembler. It supports undocumented Linux filter extensions, that high-level filters fail to support.
      • ifpps a top-like kernel networking statistics tool.
        • -d or --dev to specify the device.
        • -n or --num-cpusd specifies the number of CPUs/cores to display in ncurses mode, default is 10.
        • -t or --interval is the desired refresh interval, default is 1000ms.
        • -c or --csv to output to a CSV (more human friendly than raw) format.
        • -o or--omit-header to be used with -c it asks to not write the headers in the file.
        • -l or --loop will continuously output to the terminal data after a refresh interval. Requires -c.
        • -m or --median is the flag that shows the median values across all CPUs/cores for a load calculation and interrupts.
        • -p or --promisc turns on the promiscous mode on the NIC. In virtualized envinronments it might also require tweaks on the hypervisor.
        • -P or --percentage will show relative values to the line rate.
        • -W or --no-warn suppresses warnings.
        • ifpps eth0
          sudo ifpps -pd eth0
          sudo ifpps -lpcd eth0 > eth0raw.data
          sudo ifpps -lpcd wlan0 > wlan0raw.data
      • flowtop a top-like netfilter connection tracking tool.
        • -4 or --ipv4 for only IPv4.
        • -6 or --ipv6 for only IPV6.
        • -T or --tcp for only TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) traffic.
        • -U or --udp for only UDP (User Datagram Protocol) traffic.
        • -I or --icmp for only ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) traffic.
        • -D or --dccp for only DCCP (Datagram Congestion Control Protocol) traffic.
        • -S or --sctp for only SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) traffic.
        • -n or --no-dns do not DNS replace IPs with reverse lookup names.
        • -s or --show-src show source IP.
        • -b or --bits show speed in bits/s instead of bytes/s.
        • -G or --no-geoip do not use the GeoIP database (buggy).
        • -u or --update updates the GeoIP local database.
        • -t or --interval defines the refresh interval in seconds, default is 1.
          • They can and should all be used in combination with each other.
          • sudo flowtop -4UTIGs
        • For the GeoIP database:
          • sudo mkdir /usr/share/netsniff-ng
            sudo flowtop --update
          • You might find issues with the file `GeoIP.dat.gz` that is missing and cannot be retrived from the mirrors because they are not available anymore. One alternative is to manually download and place on the specified directory. Or do not use GeoIP (-G).
      • curvetun a lightweight Curve25519-based IP tunnel that uses TUN/TAP to transfer IPv4/IPv6 TCP/UDP traffic over IPv4/IPv6.
      • astraceroute an autonomous system (AS) trace route utility. Compared to traceroute and tcptraceroute it provides additional information that is about the AS and GeoIP.
  • ollydbg
    • OllyDbg is a 32-bit assembler level analysing debugger (decompiler) for Microsoft Windows binaries [Link]. It requires wine to run on Linux and is a great tool for malware analysis (the source code is not available). It is not open source.
    • sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 && sudo apt update && sudo apt -y install wine32
      • It might fail because the library kernel32.dll could not be loaded by wine. Work on it!
  • rkhunter
    • Rootkit Hunter is a open source Unix-based tool that scans for rootkits, backdoors and exploits in the local system [Link].
    • It compares hashes of important local files with known good ones in online databases.
    • Then, searching for rootkits, wrong permission and hidden files, suspicious strings in kernel modules, and does special tests for Linux and FreeBSD.
    • sudo apt install rkhunter -y
      sudo rkhunter --update
      sudo rkhunter --propupd
      sudo rkhunter -c --enable all --disable none --rwo
      sudo rkhunter --check
      sudo tail -f /var/log/rkhunter.log
      • Note: there is no much value to run it on the Kali unless it had mounted a secondary drive cloned from a production server and with the usage of chroot scan that system instead. Or periodically run in real production environments with email notifications enabled as a cronjob (E.g. 0 3 * * * root /usr/bin/rkhunter --cronjob --update --quiet).
  • unhide
    • Unhide is a forensic tool that looks for hidden processes and open ports by rootkits or LKMs (loadable kernel modules), and other hidden techniques [Link].
    • sudo apt install unhide -y
    • unhide reveals any processes that are hidden from the process list.
      • brute an aggressive method that checks areas that are not checked by default.
      • proc checks an specific process ID.
      • procall uses all available methods including brute.
      • procfs relys on /proc to obtain the process list.
      • quick a superficial and less intrusive check.
      • reverse perform the checks in reverse order, starting from brute.
      • sys relys on syscall to obtain the process list.
      • sudo unhide proc
        sudo unhide procall
        sudo unhide -v brute
    • unhide-linux looks for processes that are hidden using Linux kernel modules.
      • sudo unhide-linux reverse
    • unhide-posix checks for hidden TCP/UDP ports on your system (backdoors).
      • sudo unhide-posix sys
        sudo unhide-posix proc
    • unhide-tcp checks for hidden TCP/UDP ports on your system (backdoors).
      • sudo unhide-tcp -v
    • unhide_rb check for hidden processes using C functions that are commonly used in rootkits written in Ruby.
      • sudo unhide_rb
    • Note: unhide-gui does not come installed on Kali but does not seems to work anyway.
  • wireshark
    • Wireshark is a network protocol analyzer. It captures (sniffs) traffic in real-time, commonly used for troubleshoot, monitoring activity, and identify security vulnerabilities [Link].
  • xplico
    • Xplico is a network forensics tool that extract content from a PCAP file [Link]. For example, it can reconstruct a web-page, tranferred files, VoIP calls, etc. It also offer a web interface on (default credentials admin:xplico).
      • sudo xplico-webui
    • On the command-line it can be used as follows:
      • xplico -m pcap -f file.pcap
        sudo xplico -m rltm -i eth0
  • yara
    • YARA Rules are used to identify patterns of specific string in malware binaries to help classifying them (signature based identification) [Link].
    • sudo apt install yara libyara9 libyara-dev -y


  • ddrescue
    • It is a popular tools for recovery corrupted data from drives with damaged sectors and blocks [Link]. Other tools that might help to recovery data when are SpinRite (not open-source but the most powerful and reputable in existence) [Link], MyRescue, Testdisk, Photorec, Foremost, or Scalpel.
    • sudo ddrescue -f --no-split /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 output.log
  • ext3grep
    • It can be used as a forensics tool to recover deleted files [Link]. Note that it is not currently under maintenance because ext3 is consider obsolete.
    • sudo apt install ext3grep -y
      ext3grep --dump-names /dev/sdb1 | grep 'fileName'
      ext3grep --ls --group 1000 /dev/sdb1
      ext3grep --restore-all /dev/sdb1
  • ext4magic
    • ext4magic wes inpired on extgrep and extundelete and it is capable of restoring deleted files from ext3/ext4 directly from the file system journal [Link].
    • sudo apt install ext4magic -y
      sudo ext4magic /dev/sdb1 -M -d /PATH/Recovered/
  • extundelete
    • ExtUndelete tries to recover deleted files based of clues found in the partition’s journal [Link].
    • sudo apt install extundelete -y
      sudo extundelete /dev/sdb1 --restore-all
  • myrescue
    • MyRescue is an alternative to ddrescue. It does a best effort to try to recover data for defective drives [Link].
    • sudo apt install myrescue -y
  • recoverdm
    • RecoveryDM recovers data from bad sectors by attempting to read the in raw mode while ignoring errors. Unfortunately it is a defunct application that was discontinued and no official web-site is available.
    • sudo apt install recoverdm -y
  • recoverjpeg
    • RecoverJPEG tries to recover deleted JPEG and MOV (using recovermov) from a partition [Link].
    • sudo apt install recoverjpeg -y
  • scrounge-ntfs
    • Scrounge NTFS is a data recovery tool that reads each block of the disk and tries to rebuild the original file system structure into an output directory [Link].
    • sudo apt install scrounge-ntfs -y
      sudo scrounge-ntfs -l /dev/sdb
      scrounge-ntfs -m <MFT_OFFSET> -c <CLUSTER_SIZE> <START_SECTOR> <END_SECTOR> -o /PATH/Recovered/ /dev/sdb
  • undbx
    • UnDBX recovers deleted email from the respective MS Outlook .dbx file [Link]. Eventually it can also recover emails or fragments of them from corruped
    • sudo apt install undbx -y